Index

The Woolen Industry of Pittsfield

by Peter Lee Gulick, August 1969


A

accidents, 89, 14, 3334

American Woolen Company

    acquisition by Textron, 78

    advertisements by, 63

    future assessed, 74-75

    Linn Woolen Mill purchased by, 58

    Pioneer Mill modernization proposed, 76-78

    Pioneer Mill purchased by, 54

    Pioneer Mill sold to Pittsfield Development Association,78

    Riverside Mill purchased, 58

    and tariffs, 48

    Waverly Mill purchased, 57

American Woolen Mills. See American Woolen Company

 

B

benefits, 74

black listing. See workers

"British" sector, 7

    See also "Little Scotland"

"bum weavers," 36

 

C

Carded Woolen Manufacturers Association, 46, 49-50

celebrations, 9, 26, 41

company housing. See housing

Conant, R. A., 8

cost of living

    1800's, late, 7

    1900s, early, 38

    depression years, 68-69

    post World War II, 73

    credit, 29

 

D

Davis, William, 5

Dobson, Davis and Company, 5

    See also Pioneer Mill; Robert Dobson and Company

Dobson, Gordon, 6

Dobson, Robert, 45

Dobson Company. See Robert Dobson and Company

drinking to excess, 22

 

E

Edwards Company, 78-79

electric power in woolen mills, 51

employment in woolen mills, 80-81

 

F

fire, 73

fire protection

    Maple Grove Fire Company, 15

    Pioneer Mill, 11, 44

floods, 13, 45, 63-64

 

H

Hathorn, Going, 5

Hersey, Preston, 8, 9

Hersey and Delano Machine Shop, 34

Hodgkins Mill, 72

Hodgkins Mill (rayon), 72

housing

    Pioneer Mill, 67, 12, 38-39

    sale of, 67-68

    Waverly Mill, 18, 20-21, 60

housing, company supplied

    See also "Little Scotland"

housing, Pittsfield, 21-22, 27, 79

 

I

immigrants, 6, 32

Industrial Committee. See Pittsfield Development Association

 

K

Kennebec Purchase, 3

Kiwanis Club of Pittsfield, 75, 76

 

L

labor. See workers

law suit, 45-46

Linn Woolen Mill (Hartland), 57-58

"Little Scotland,", 7, 12, 14, 32, 64

 

M

M. C. Foster and Son, 20

Maine Central Institute (MCI), 3

Maine Development Commission, 76

Maine Woolen Manufacturers Association, 13, 29, 46

Maple Grove Fire Company, 15

Maple Grove Mill, 9, 11, 15, 30-31

    construction, 89

    described, 10

    production, 9, 31

    sale to Fred Smith and partners (later Smith TextileCompany), 35

    See also Riverside Mill

McGilvery and Cummings. See McGilvery Mill

McGilvery Mill (shoddy mill, former Bryant Saw Mill), 51-52, 63, 64, 65

    See also Milliken Mill

Milliken Mill, 65, 68, 70

mills

    Bryant Saw Mill (converted to shoddy mill), 51-52

    Conners's saw mill, 4

    consolidation under American Woolen, 56-57

    Dobson, Davis Company, 56

    grain, 3

    grist, 14

    number of, 80, 81-82

    woolen (See Maple Grove; McGilvery; Milliken; Pioneer; Riverside; Sebasticook)

    production, 61-62, 80, 82-83

    wage adjustment, 58-59

"Model Mills of America," 5

 

N

NRA (National Recovery Act), 68

 

O

Old Yarn Mill, 69-70

 

P

paternalism, 38, 40

pay. See wages

Pecker Farm, 20

Pioneer Mill

    closed, 75

    electric generating plant, 70

    employment, 37, 66, 71, 75

    engine room, 12

    expanded, 56, 14, 42-45, 69, 70-71

    fire protection, 11, 44

    housing, 67, 12, 38-39

products, 12-13

    sale to American Woolen Company, 54, 57

    torn down, 79

Pioneer Mill (Dobson, Davis and Co.), 5, 8

Pitts, William, 3

Pittsfield, town of, 34

    bridges, 14, 18

    dams, 4, 15, 18

    population, 4

    tax base, 67

    tax exemption opposed by, 29

Pittsfield Development Association

    created, 76

    Edwards Company plant constructed, 78

    Pioneer Mill purchased by, 78

Pittsfield Hand Knitting Company, 73

    See also Pittsfield Woolen Yarns Co., Inc.

Pittsfield Industries, 74

Pittsfield Woolen Yarns Co., Inc., 73

Plymouth Gore, 3

Pooler, H. A., 8

production, 31, 32, 71

protests and strikes, 13, 29-30

 

R

reorganized as Smith Textile Company, 52-53

replacement plant, 76, 77, 78-79

Riverside Mill

    employment, 37-38

Riverside Mill (formerly Maple Grove Mill), 42

    expansion, 37

    sale to American Woolen Company, 58

    production increase, 35-36

Robert Dobson and Company

    officers of, 28

    See also Pioneer Mill; Waverly Mill

Robert Dobson Company. See Robert Dobson and Company

 

S

sale to Pittsfield Industries, 74

saw mills, 3

"Scotland." See "Little Scotland"

Scottish immigration, 32

Scottish mill workers, 67

Sebasticook Mill, 66, 70

    See also Riverside Mill

Sebasticook River, 3

barges, 26

    dams, 4, 15, 18

    shingle mill, 3

    shoddy mill, 51

    shoddy mill (McGilvery), 51-52, 63

    shutdowns, 28, 34, 35, 59, 68

Smith Textile Company (former Riverside Mill), 52-53, 58

social events. See celebrations

    sources of, 9, 13

steam plant, 12, 42 45

steam power, 10

stock subscriptions, 8, 15 18, 19

stock subscriptions for, 15 18

strike, 29-30

strike breaking, 69

strikes, 29, 50-51, 61

subscriptons, 8

support of war, 59-60

 

T

tariffs, 4650, 50, 86, 86 95, 95, 96-101, 97, 100, 102-104, 104

taxes

    abatements, 34-35, 37

    exemptions, 29

    relief from, 66

    taxable evaluation, 4

tenements. See housing

Textron, 77, 78-79

 

U

unionism, 36, 73

 

W

W. C. T. U. (Women's Christian Temperance Union), 22

wage reductions at Waverly Mill, 29

Wages

    benefits, 60

    wages, 29, 68, 73-74

    under American Woolen, 59

    benefits, 60, 73

    Dobson, Davis Co. (1873), 5

    for women, 12.

    also paternalism

Walker, Dennison, 6, 8

Warsaw, 3

wartime production, 56-57

Waverly Mill

    closing of, 65

    construction of, 18-21, 22-23, 27

    description, 23-26

    sale of, 70, 71-72

Waverly Woolen Company, 29, 30, 40, 45 46.

See also Waverly Mill

women, as mill employees, 12, 52, 71

wool, scoured, 87, 102, 104

woolen goods, production of, 12, 46-48, 64

wool tariff. See tariffs

workers

    dismissal and blacklisting, 13

    hours, 7

    See also wages; women

worsted mills, 49

worsted tops, 86-87, 102


Glossary (terms in italics are defined in separate entries):

card web: the carding cylinder output wool untangled and combed into a thin sheet.

roving: card web output in woolen manufacture, mechanically divided and loosely twisted into long narrow strands.

card sliver: card web output in worsted manufacture, a single bundled rope of fibers.

gilling: combing process in worsted manufacture that removes short fibers from the card sliver.

noils: short fibers that the gilling process removes.

top: long fibers remaining in an untwisted, roped sliver after the gilling process.

Schedule K: the portion of the tariff regulation that sets the rates applied to various classes of fibers.

Compensating duty: given an internal tax on wool, an equal tax should be put on imported woolens known as the compensating duty. (Otherwise the importer would be given an advantage, and would undersell the domestic producer.) The wool and woolens tariff act of 1867, which incorporated the compensating duty, remained in operation without essential changes (except for the years 1894-97) until 1913. The kind of wool most largely used in the United States in 1867 lost about two-thirds of its weight in scouring; the same was the case with the wool which was then expected to be imported. Further allowance was made for some wastage of the fibre in the manufacturing process. Thus the compensating duty on woolens was fixed on the supposition that four pounds of wool would be needed to make one pound of cloth. At the outset of this legislation, carding was the only process for producing wool cloth.

 


[Index and Glossary compiled from the original document by Tom Brown of the Pittsfield Historical Society in 2005.]

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